共通テスト英語2022(令和4) 第6問A 問題＆詳細解説
英語2022 (令和4) 第6問A－問題
A Your study group is learning about “how time of day affects people.” You have found an article you want to share. Complete the summary notes for your next meeting.
When Does the Day Begin for You?
When asked “Are you a morning person?” some reply “No, I’m a night owl.” Such people can concentrate and create at night. At the other end of the clock, a well-known proverb claims: “The early bird catches the worm,” which means that waking early is the way to get food, win prizes, and reach goals. The lark is a morning singer, so early birds, the opposite of owls, are larks. Creatures active during the day are “diurnal” and those emerging at night are “nocturnal.”
Yet another proverb states: “Early to bed, early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.” Larks may jump out of bed and welcome the morning with a big breakfast, while owls hit the snooze button, getting ready at the last minute, usually without breakfast. They may have fewer meals, but they eat late in the day. Not exercising after meals can cause weight gain. Perhaps larks are healthier. Owls must work or learn on the lark schedule. Most schooling occurs before 4:00 p.m., so young larks may perform certain tasks better. Business deals made early in the day may make some larks wealthier.
What makes one person a lark and another an owl? One theory suggests preference for day or night has to do with time of birth. In 2010, Cleveland State University researchers found evidence that not only does a person’s internal clock start at the moment of birth, but that those born at night might have lifelong challenges performing during daytime hours. Usually, their world experience begins with darkness. Since traditional study time and office work happen in daylight, we assume that day begins in the morning. People asleep are not first in line, and might miss chances.
Does everyone follow the system of beginning days in the morning? The Jewish people, an approximately 6,000-year-old religious group, believe a day is measured from sundown until the following sundown ― from eve to eve. Christians continue this tradition with Christmas Eve. The Chinese use their system of 12 animals not only to mark years, but to separate each two-hour period of the day. The hour of the rat, the first period, is from 11:00 p.m. to 1:00 a.m. Chinese culture also begins the day at night. In other words, ancient customs support how owls view time.
Research indicates owls are smarter and more creative. So, perhaps larks are not always wiser! That is to say, larks win “healthy” and sometimes “wealthy,” but they may lose “wise.” In an early report, Richard D. Roberts and Patrick C. Kyllonen state that owls tend to be more intelligent. A later, comprehensive study by Franzis Preckel, for which Roberts was one of the co-authors, came to the same conclusion. It is not all good news for owls, though. Not only can schoolwork be a challenge, but they may miss daytime career opportunities and are more likely to enjoy the bad habits of “nightlife,” playing at night while larks sleep. Nightlife tends to be expensive. A University of Barcelona study suggests larks are precise, seek perfection, and feel little stress. Owls seek new adventures and exciting leisure activities, yet they often have trouble relaxing.
Can people change? While the results are not all in, studies of young adults seem to say no, we are hard-wired. So, as young people grow and acquire more freedom, they end up returning to their lark or owl nature. However, concerns arise that this categorization may not fit everyone. In addition to time of birth possibly being an indication, a report published in Nature Communications suggests that DNA may also affect our habits concerning time. Other works focus on changes occurring in some people due to aging or illness. New research in this area appears all the time. A study of university students in Russia suggests that there are six types, so owls and larks may not be the only birds around!
Your summary notes :
When Does the Day Begin for You?
Definition of diurnal : ( 39 )
⇔opposite : nocturnal
The Main Points
・Not all of us fit easily into the common daytime schedule, but we are forced to follow it, especially when we are children.
・Some studies indicate that the most active time for each of us is part of our nature.
・Basically, ( 40 ).
・Perspectives keep changing with new research.
・The Jewish and Christian religions, as well as Chinese time division, are referred to in the article in order to ( 41 ) .
・Some studies show that ( 42 ) may set a person’s internal clock and may be the explanation for differences in intelligence and ( 43 ).
問1 Choose the best option for ( 39 ).
① achieves goals quickly ② likes keeping pet birds
③ lively in the daytime ④ skillful in finding food
問2 Choose the best option for ( 40 ).
① a more flexible time and performance schedule will be developed in the future
② enjoying social activities in the morning becomes more important as we age
③ it might be hard for us to change what time of day we perform best
④ living on the owl schedule will eventually lead to social and financial benefits
問3 Choose the best option for ( 41 ).
① explain that certain societies have long believed that a day begins at night
② indicate that nocturnal people were more religious in the past
③ say that people have long thought they miss chances due to morning laziness
④ support the idea that owls must go to work or school on the lark schedule
問4 Choose the best options for ( 42 ) and ( 43 ) .
① amount of sleep ② appearance ③ behavior ④ cultural background
⑤ religious beliefs ⑥ time of birth
第6問A 問1 解答
問1 Choose the best option for ( 39 ). ( 39 )に当てはまる最も適当な選択肢を選べ。
① achieves goals quickly 目標を素早く達成する
② likes keeping pet birds ペットの鳥を飼うのが好きである
③ lively in the daytime 日中に活発である
④ skillful in finding food 食べ物を探すのが上手である
Creatures active during the day are “diurnal”
第6問A 問2 解答
問2 Choose the best option for ( 40 ). ( 40 )に当てはまる最も適当な選択肢を選べ。
① a more flexible time and performance schedule will be developed in the future 将来より柔軟な時間スケジュールとパフォーマンススケジュールが開発される
② enjoying social activities in the morning becomes more important as we age 私たちが歳を取るにつれて、朝に社会活動を楽しむことがより重要になる
③ it might be hard for us to change what time of day we perform best 私たちがその日の何時に最高のパフォーマンスを発揮するかを変えることは難しいかもしれない
④ living on the owl schedule will eventually lead to social and financial benefits フクロウのスケジュールで生活することは、最終的に社会的経済的利益につながる
One theory suggests preference for day or night has to do with time of birth.
Can people change? While the results are not all in, studies of young adults seem to say no, we are hard-wired.
第6問A 問3 解答
問3 Choose the best option for ( 41 ). ( 41 )に当てはまる最も適当な選択肢を選べ。
① explain that certain societies have long believed that a day begins at night ある社会は長い間一日が夜に始まると信じてきたと説明する
② indicate that nocturnal people were more religious in the past かつて夜行性の人々はより宗教的であったことを示す
③ say that people have long thought they miss chances due to morning laziness 人々は長い間朝に怠惰なせいで機会を逃すと考えてきたと言う
④ support the idea that owls must go to work or school on the lark schedule フクロウはヒバリのスケジュールで仕事や学校に行かなければならないという考えを支持する
第四段落にはJewish peopleが日没から日没を一日と数え、Cristian がクリスマス・イブをもってその伝統を引き継ぎ、中国では夜の11時に始まることが書かれているので①が正解。
第6問A 問4 解答
問4 Choose the best options for ( 42 ) and ( 43 ) . ( 42 )と( 43 )に当てはまる最も適当な選択肢を選べ。(42) ⑥ ( 43 )③
① amount of sleep 睡眠の量
② appearance 外見
③ behavior 行動
④ cultural background 文化的背景
⑤ religious beliefs 宗教的信念
⑥ time of birth 生まれた時刻
( 42 )の後にinternal clockとあるのでこの単語が出てくる箇所を探す。
In 2010, Cleveland State University researchers found evidence that not only does a person’s internal clock start at the moment of birth,
「2010年クリーブランド州立大学の研究者は人の体内時計が生まれた瞬間に始まるだけでなく～」とあるので( 42 )には⑥が入る。
( 43 )は第五段落の中頃から
Not only can schoolwork be a challenge, but they may miss daytime career opportunities and are more likely to enjoy the bad habits of “nightlife,” playing at night while larks sleep.
「(フクロウには) 学業が困難になる可能性があるだけでなく、彼らは日中の仕事の機会を逃すかもしれず、ヒバリが眠っている間に夜に遊ぶという「ナイトライフ」の悪い習慣を楽しむ可能性が(ヒバリ) 高くなる。」