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【共通テスト 英語 試行テスト】H29年(2017年) 第5問 問題と詳しい解説

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Z会の教室で15年英語講師をしていた重田真人です。
中1から高3の基礎クラスから東大クラスまでほとんどのクラスを担当しました。映像授業にも多数出演しています。
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1. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H29年実施 第5問 A ー 問題

A You are the editor of your school newspaper. You have been asked to provide comments on an article about origami written by an American student named Mary.


 

Origami

(1) Many people in Japan have childhood memories of origami, where square sheets of paper are transformed into beautiful shapes such as animals and flowers. Origami has been enjoyed widely by people of all ages for centuries.

(2) A recent event reminded us that origami is viewed as a traditional Japanese art form overseas. When President Barack Obama visited Hiroshima in 2016, he made four origami paper cranes neatly. He then presented them to Hiroshima City. This was seen as a symbol of his commitment to friendship between the two countries and to world peace.

(3) Two positive influences of origami can be seen in care for the elderly and rehabilitation. Origami requires the precise coordination of fingers as well as intense concentration to fold the paper into certain shapes. It is thought to slow the progression of memory loss associated with such medical problems as Alzheimer’s disease. It is also believed that origami helps keep motor skills and increases brain activity, which aid a person recovering from injuries. For these reasons, both inside and outside Japan, there are many elderly care and rehabilitation programs in which origami is used.

(4) Children also benefit from origami. It fosters creativity and artistic sense while allowing them to have fun. This has resulted in a large number of associations— both domestic and international — regularly holding events for young children such as origami competitions and exhibits. Isn’t it surprising that many organizations that are active in these areas can be found overseas?

(5) [ A ] Furthermore, origami paper folding technology has promising applications in medicine. [ B ] In 2016, an international team of researchers developed a tiny paper-thin robot that can be used for medical treatment. The robot, made of material from pigs, is folded like origami paper and covered with a capsule made of ice. When the capsule is swallowed by a patient and reaches the patient’s stomach, the capsule melts, and the robot unfolds as it absorbs water from the surrounding area. [ C ] After this, the robot is controlled from outside of the body to perform an operation. When the task is complete, the robot moves out of the body naturally. [ D ]

(6) As seen in the examples above, origami is no longer merely a traditional Japanese art form that many of us experienced as a leisure activity in childhood. In fact, it is a powerful agent that can bring positive change to the lives of all generations worldwide. While the appreciation of its beauty is likely to continue for generations to come, nowadays origami has come to influence various other aspects of our lives.

 


 

問1 Mary’s article mainly discusses ( 25 ).

①the greater importance of origami in medicine than in other fields

②the invention of new types of origami in many foreign countries

③the major role origami plays in promoting world peace and cooperation

④the use of origami for cultural, medical, and educational purposes

問2 Mary’s intention in Paragraphs (3) and (4) is probably to ( 26 ).

①describe the history of origami’s development outside Japan

②discuss the difficulties of using origami for treating diseases

③express concerns about using origami for rehabilitation, elderly care, and education

④introduce some contributions of origami to the lives of people of different ages

問3 You found additional information related to this topic and want to suggest that Mary add the sentence below to her article. Where would the sentence best fit among the four locations marked [ A ], [ B ] , [ C], and [ D ] in Paragraph [5] ? ( 27 )

The developers of the robot say that this technology can be used, for instance, to remove a small battery from the stomach of a child who has accidentally swallowed it.

①[ A ] ②[ B ] ③[ C ] ④[ D ]

 

 

2. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H29年実施 第5問 B ー 問題

B You are preparing for a presentation about the characteristics of spices. You have found an article about black and white pepper. You are going to read the article and take notes.


 

Black and White Pepper

( Part 1 ) Some recent studies have increased our understanding of the role of spices in helping us live longer. There are a variety of spices in the world, but most likely you are familiar with two of them, black and white pepper. Black and white pepper both come from the fruit of the same pepper plant. However, they are processed differently. Black pepper is made from the unripe fruit of the pepper plant. Each piece of fruit looks like a small green ball, just 3 to 6 millimeters across. The harvested fruit turns black when it is dried under the sun. Each piece of dried fruit is called a peppercorn. The color of the powdered black pepper comes from the skin of the peppercorn. On the other hand, to get white pepper, the pepper fruit is harvested when it is cherry-red. The skin of the fruit is removed before sun-drying. The color of the seed inside the pepper fruit is white. This is how white peppercorns are processed. Because the skin is very thin, the size of black and white peppercorns is similar. White pepper is usually more expensive than black because there are more steps in processing it.

( Part 2 ) Where does the flavor of pepper come from? The sharp spicy taste is caused by a natural compound called piperine. Not only the seed but also the outer layer of the peppercorn contains lots of piperine. Therefore, some people say black pepper tastes hotter than white. Black pepper also contains many other substances that make its taste more complex. The unique flavor of black pepper produced by the mixed substances goes well with many kinds of dishes. White pepper’s flavor is often regarded as more refined than that of black pepper, but it is too weak to bring out the flavor of meat dishes such as steak. Thanks to its color, white pepper is often used in light-colored dishes. Mashed potatoes, white sauce, and white fish may look better when they are spiced with white pepper.

( Part 3 ) Historically, people have used pepper as a folk medicine. For instance, it was a popular remedy for coughs and colds. The health effect of pepper is partly caused by piperine. Like vitamin C, piperine is a potent antioxidant. This means that, by eating foods including this compound, we may prevent harmful chemical reactions. Furthermore, recent studies have found that pepper reduces the impact of some types of illnesses. All spices that include piperine have this effect on a person’s body. Both black and white pepper have the same health benefits.


 

Complete the notes by filling in ( 28 ) to ( 33 ).

Notes

Outline:
 Part 1: ( 28 )
 Part 2: ( 29 )
 Part 3: ( 30 )

Table: Comparing Black and White Pepper

Common points Differences
( 31 ) ( 32 )

 

Main points: ( 33 )


 

問1 The best headings for Parts 1, 2, and 3 are ( 28 ), ( 29 ), and ( 30 ), respectively. (You may use an option only once.)

①The characteristics of pepper as a spice

②The effects of pepper on health

③The place of origin of black and white pepper

④The production of black and white pepper

問2 Among the following, the common points and differences described in the article are ( 31 ) and ( 32 ), respectively. (You may choose more than one option for each box.)

①the amount of vitamin C

②the effect on illnesses

③the flavor

④the plant

⑤the price

⑥the removal of the skin

問3 This article mainly discusses ( 33 ).

①the advantages and disadvantages of using black and white pepper compared to other spices

②the reason why people started to make black and white pepper, and why they have lost popularity

③the reason why white pepper is better than black pepper, and why it is better for us

④the similarities and differences between white and black pepper, and also the health benefits of both

 

 

3. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第5問解答・配点と正解率

問題番号 設問 解答番号 正解 正答率
第5問 A 1 25 4 61.0%
A 2 26 4 31.6%
A 3 27 4 25.7%
B 1 28 4 37.3% (*2)
29 1
30 2
B 2 31 2,4 6.0% (*3)
32 3,5,6
B 3 33 4 66.2%

*1は、過不足なく解答した場合のみ点を与える。

*2は、全部正しくマークしている場合のみ正解とする。

*3は解答番号31と32の両方をそれぞれ過不足なくマークしている場合のみ正解とする。

4. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H29年実施 第5問 A ー 解答、解説

5A 問1の解答、解説

問1 Mary’s article mainly discusses ( 25 ).

メアリーの記事は主に( 25 )について議論している。

①the greater importance of origami in medicine than in other fields

医学における折り紙の重要性が他の分野よりも高いこと

②the invention of new types of origami in many foreign countries

多くの外国での新しい種類の折り紙の発明

③the major role origami plays in promoting world peace and cooperation

折り紙が世界の平和と協力の促進に果たす主な役割

④the use of origami for cultural, medical, and educational purposes

文化的、医学的、教育的目的のための折り紙の利用

 

4つの選択肢のうち、①と②は記述がなくわかりやすく不正解。③はworld peaceという単語が第二段落にありますが、メインなのか疑問があります。

④が正解に見えますが検証して行きます。

まず第二段落の第1文。

A recent event reminded us that origami is viewed as a traditional Japanese art form overseas.

「折り紙は海外から伝統的な日本の芸術とみなされている」とあるので文化的な目的で折り紙を使用していると言えます。

また第三段落の第一文。

Two positive influences of origami can be seen in care for the elderly and rehabilitation.

「折り紙の2つのプラスの影響が老人介護とリハビリの中に見て取れる」とあるので医療的な目的で折り紙を使用していると言えます。

更に第五段落の内容も折り紙を折る技術が医療用ロボットで使用されているという話です。

そして第三段落の冒頭部分。

Children also benefit from origami. It fosters creativity and artistic sense while allowing them to have fun.

「子供たちも折り紙から恩恵を得ていて、折り紙は創造性と芸術的なセンスを育成する」とあるので、教育的な目的で折り紙を使用していると言えます。

よってやはり④が正解。

③はオバマ大統領が広島に来た際には折り紙を広島市に渡したことが2カ国の友好と世界平和の象徴とみなされとありますが、その部分だけで「世界平和」を本文のメインの内容にするには無理があります。

5A 問2の解答、解説

問2 Mary’s intention in Paragraphs (3) and (4) is probably to ( 26 ).

(3)段落と(4)段落におけるメアリーの意図はおそらく( 26 )ことだ。

①describe the history of origami’s development outside Japan

折り紙の日本の外での発達の歴史を説明する

②discuss the difficulties of using origami for treating diseases

病気を治療するために折り紙を使うことの難しさを議論する

③express concerns about using origami for rehabilitation, elderly care, and education

折り紙をリハビリ、高齢者介護、教育に使用することについての懸念を表明する

④introduce some contributions of origami to the lives of people of different ages

折り紙の貢献を年齢の異なる人々の生活に導入している

問1の正答と被りますが、第三段落で老人介護に役立ち、第四段落で子供の教育に役立つと言っています。

これが、折り紙の貢献を年齢の異なる人々の生活に導入していると言えるので④が正解。

①は記述なし。②、③も記述がないし、difficulties「困難」concern「懸念」といった折り紙に対するマイナス要素は本文中に全く出てきません。

 

 

5A 問3の解答、解説

問3 You found additional information related to this topic and want to suggest that Mary add the sentence below to her article. Where would the sentence best fit among the four locations marked [ A ], [ B ] , [ C], and [ D ] in Paragraph [5] ? ( 27 )

あなたはこのトピックに関係する追加情報を見つけ、メアリーが記事に以下の文を追加することを提案したいと思っている。段落[5]の [ A ]、[ B ]、[ C ]、[ D ]と記されている4箇所のうち、どこに文を入れるのが最も適切か。

The developers of the robot say that this technology can be used, for instance, to remove a small battery from the stomach of a child who has accidentally swallowed it

このロボットの開発者たちは、例えばこの技術は誤って小さな電池を飲み込んだ子供の胃から電池をを取り出すことに使うことができると言っています。

①[ A ] ②[ B ] ③[ C ] ④[ D ]

 

空所に文を挿入する問題。イタリックで書かれた文の中で1番最初に注意すべきなのはthe robot, this technology などの指示語。

(5) [ A ] Furthermore, origami paper folding technology has promising applications in medicine. [ B ] In 2016, an international team of researchers developed a tiny paper-thin robot that can be used for medical treatment. The robot, made of material from pigs, is folded like origami paper and covered with a capsule made of ice. When the capsule is swallowed by a patient and reaches the patient’s stomach, the capsule melts, and the robot unfolds as it absorbs water from the surrounding area. [ C ] After this, the robot is controlled from outside of the body to perform an operation. When the task is complete, the robot moves out of the body naturally. [ D ]

特にthe robotの方は3行目のa tiny paper-thin robot を言い換えたものなので[ A ]と[ B ]は不正解であることが容易に分かります。

初登場の名詞が「a」で始まり、2回目以降が 「the」で始まるのは定番ですね。  

しげT

C か D かは迷いますが、[ C ]の後のAfter thisのthisが「ロボットが開いた」ことを指すと読むと文の繋がりがスムーズに読めます。

またイタリックの部分は  for instance が示すように具体例であり、第五段落の流れが「あるロボットの紹介」→「一連の動作の説明」そして最後に「その具体例」と考えれば自然な流れなので[ D ]が正解になります。

 

 

5. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H29年実施 第5問 B ー 解答、解説

5B 問1の解答、解説

Outline:
 Part 1: ( 28 )
 Part 2: ( 29 )
 Part 3: ( 30 )

問1 The best headings for Parts 1, 2, and 3 are ( 28 ), ( 29 ), and ( 30 ), respectively. (You may use an option only once.)

パート1、2、3の最適な見出しは、それぞれ( 28 )、( 29 )、( 30 )である。(選択肢は1回だけ使うことができる。)

①The characteristics of pepper as a spice  ( 29 )

香辛料としての胡椒の特徴

②The effects of pepper on health ( 30 )

胡椒の健康への影響

③The place of origin of black and white pepper

黒胡椒と白胡椒の原産地

④The production of black and white pepper ( 28 )

黒胡椒と白胡椒の生産

 

①はspice「香辛料」とあるのでPart2冒頭部のflavor「風味、味わい」という単語に注目します。

Where does the flavor of pepper come from?

胡椒の風味はどこからやってくるのか?

とあり、spicy「ピリッとした」味はpiperine なるものからもたらされると述べています。

またその後は黒胡椒と白胡椒の風味の違い。使われる料理の違いなどが述べられているので「香辛料としての胡椒の特徴」にぴったり合うので①は( 29 )=Part2が正解になります。

②は Part3の冒頭部に注目。

Historically, people have used pepper as a folk medicine. For instance, it was a popular remedy for coughs and colds.

「歴史的に人々は胡椒を民間薬として用いてきた。例えば、胡椒は咳や風邪に一般的な治療法だった。」とあるのでこれを「胡椒の健康への影響」と考えることできます。

従って②は( 30 )=Part3。

③は記述なし。

④はPart1に黒胡椒および白胡椒の作り方が述べられているので( 28 )が正解になります。

 

 

5B 問2の解答、解説

問2 Among the following, the common points and differences described in the article are ( 31 ) and ( 32 ), respectively. (You may choose more than one option for each box.)

以下の選択肢の中で、この記事で説明されている共通点と相違点はそれぞれ( 31 )と( 32 )である。(各解答欄に複数の選択肢を選んでも良い)

①the amount of vitamin C ビタミンCの量

②the effect on illnesses 病気への影響

③the flavor 風味

④the plant 植物

⑤the price 価格

⑥the removal of the skin 皮の除去

正解 31 ②、④ 32 ③、⑤、⑥

 

センターでは見慣れない形式。しかも複数選択可。全問正解するのは大変だったと思います。

しげT

①ビタミンCについてはPart3の第3文に

Like vitamin C, piperine is a potent antioxidant.

「ビタミンCのように、ピペリンは強力な抗酸化物質である。」という記述はあるが含有量に関する記載はないのでどちらにも当てはまりません。


 

②の病気への影響は先程も見たようにPart3が該当段落。

( Part 3 ) Historically, people have used pepper as a folk medicine. For instance, it was a popular remedy for coughs and colds. The health effect of pepper is partly caused by piperine. Like vitamin C, piperine is a potent antioxidant. This means that, by eating foods including this compound, we may prevent harmful chemical reactions. Furthermore, recent studies have found that pepper reduces the impact of some types of illnesses. All spices that include piperine have this effect on a person’s body. Both black and white pepper have the same health benefits.

黒胡椒と白胡椒に関する記述は最後にようやく出てきます。

「黒胡椒も白胡椒も健康上のメリットは同じ」とあるので②は共通点。


 

③の風味についてはPart2。黒胡椒と白胡椒の風味の違いがいくつか述べられている。

例えば第4文に

Therefore, some people say black pepper tastes hotter than white.

「したがって、黒胡椒は白胡椒より辛いと言う人もいる。」

これなどが根拠になり③は相違点。


 

④は Part1の前半に書かれれている。

Part 1 ) Some recent studies have increased our understanding of the role of spices in helping us live longer. There are a variety of spices in the world, but most likely you are familiar with two of them, black and white pepper. Black and white pepper both come from the fruit of the same pepper plant. However, they are processed differently. Black pepper is made from the unripe fruit of the pepper plant. Each piece of fruit looks like a small green ball, just 3 to 6 millimeters across. The harvested fruit turns black when it is dried under the sun. Each piece of dried fruit is called a peppercorn. The color of the powdered black pepper comes from the skin of the peppercorn. On the other hand, to get white pepper, the pepper fruit is harvested when it is cherry-red. The skin of the fruit is removed before sun-drying. The color of the seed inside the pepper fruit is white. This is how white peppercorns are processed. Because the skin is very thin, the size of black and white peppercorns is similar. White pepper is usually more expensive than black because there are more steps in processing it.

「黒胡椒と白胡椒は同じ胡椒の木の実からもたらされる」とあるので④は共通点になります。


 

⑤はPart1の最後に

「白胡椒は黒胡椒より加工により多くの工程があるのでたいていはより高額だ」とあるので相違点になります。


 

⑥はPart1の終わりから第4文に

「実の皮は日光で乾燥させる前に取り除かれる。」とあります。

ここは白胡椒について説明した箇所で、皮の除去について黒胡椒の箇所に特に説明はありません。

ただ黒胡椒の加工方法については「熟していない緑の実を太陽に当てると黒くなる」という記述があることから実の皮は取り除かないことが分かります。

よって⑥は相違点。

これはキツい問題ですねぇ。ほぼ文全体を読む必要があったと思います。

しげT

 

5B 問3の解答、解説

問3 This article mainly discusses ( 33 ).

この記事は主に( 33 )について説明している。

①the advantages and disadvantages of using black and white pepper compared to other spices

他のスパイスと比較して黒胡椒と白胡椒を使用する長所と短所

②the reason why people started to make black and white pepper, and why they have lost popularity

人が黒胡椒と白胡椒を作り始めた理由、およびそれが人気を失った理由

③the reason why white pepper is better than black pepper, and why it is better for us

白胡椒が黒胡椒より優れている理由、そしてそれが私たちにとってより優れている理由

④the similarities and differences between white and black pepper, and also the health benefits of both

白胡椒と黒胡椒の類似点と相違点、また両者の健康上の利点

 

問3で白胡椒と黒胡椒の共通点と相違点を散々見てきた上に、問1で健康上の影響も確認しているので分かりやすく④が正解だと分かります。

①は胡椒と比較するスパイスの記述はないので不正解。

②は人が黒胡椒と白胡椒を作り始めた理由の記述もなければ、人気を失ったという記述もないので不正解。

③は白胡椒の方が黒胡椒よりも優れている理由も、人にとって良い理由も書かれていないので不正解。

 

 

この記事を書いている人 - WRITER -
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Z会の教室で15年英語講師をしていた重田真人です。
中1から高3の基礎クラスから東大クラスまでほとんどのクラスを担当しました。映像授業にも多数出演しています。
元東海大非常勤講師。
「大学入試英語解く得!」は最高PV数 34,212 / 日まで成長。
質・量ともに日本一分かりやすい大学入試英語対策ページを目指します!
資格:英検一級、通訳案内士(英語)、TOEIC950点
趣味:海外旅行、食べ歩き
特技:将棋アマ六段 (全国レーティング選手権優勝 1998)
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