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共通テスト英語2021(令和3) 第6問B 問題&詳細解説

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英語共テ2021(令和3) 第6問B 問題

B You are studying nutrition in health class. You are going to read the following passage from a textbook to learn more about various sweeteners.

 Cake, candy, soft drinks ― most of us love sweet things. In fact, young people say “Sweet!” to mean something is “good” in English. When we think of sweetness, we imagine ordinary white sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet plants. Scientific discoveries, however, have changed the world of sweeteners. We can now extract sugars from many other plants. The most obvious example is corn. Corn is abundant, inexpensive, and easy to process. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is about 1.2 times sweeter than regular sugar, but quite high in calories. Taking science one step further, over the past 70 years scientists have developed a wide variety of artificial sweeteners.

 A recent US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey concluded that 14.6% of the average American’s energy intake is from “added sugar,” which refers to sugar that is not derived from whole foods. A banana, for example, is a whole food, while a cookie contains added sugar. More than half of added sugar calories are from sweetened drinks and desserts. Lots of added sugar can have negative effects on our bodies, including excessive weight gain and other health problems. For this reason, many choose low-calorie substitutes for drinks, snacks, and desserts.

 Natural alternatives to white sugar include brown sugar, honey, and maple syrup, but they also tend to be high in calories. Consequently, alternative “low-calorie sweeteners” (LCSs), mostly artificial chemical combinations, have become popular. The most common LCSs today are aspartame, Ace-K, stevia, and sucralose. Not all LCSs are artificial ― stevia comes from plant leaves.

 Alternative sweeteners can be hard to use in cooking because some cannot be heated and most are far sweeter than white sugar. Aspartame and Ace-K are 200 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia is 300 times sweeter, and sucralose has twice the sweetness of stevia. Some new sweeteners are even more intense. A Japanese company recently developed “Advantame,” which is 20,000 times sweeter than sugar. Only a tiny amount of this substance is required to sweeten something.

 When choosing sweeteners, it is important to consider health issues. Making desserts with lots of white sugar, for example, results in high-calorie dishes that could lead to weight gain. There are those who prefer LCSs for this very reason. Apart from calories, however, some research links consuming artificial LCSs with various other health concerns. Some LCSs contain strong chemicals suspected of causing cancer, while others have been shown to affect memory and brain development, so they can be dangerous, especially for young children, pregnant women, and the elderly. There are a few relatively natural alternative sweeteners, like xylitol and sorbitol, which are low in calories. Unfortunately, these move through the body extremely slowly, so consuming large amounts can cause stomach trouble.

 When people want something sweet, even with all the information, it is difficult for them to decide whether to stick to common higher calorie sweeteners like sugar or to use LCSs. Many varieties of gum and candy today contain one or more artificial sweeteners; nonetheless, some people who would not put artificial sweeteners in hot drinks may still buy such items. Individuals need to weigh the options and then choose the sweeteners that best suit their needs and circumstances.

問1 You learn that modern science has changed the world of sweeteners by ( 43 ) .

①discovering new, sweeter white sugar types
②measuring the energy intake of Americans
③providing a variety of new options
④using many newly-developed plants from the environment

問2 You are summarizing the information you have just studied. How should the table be finished? ( 44 )

① (A) Stevia (B) Sucralose (C) Ace-K, Aspartame (D) HFCS
② (A) Stevia (B) Sucralose (C) HFCS (D) Ace-K, Aspartame
③ (A) Sucralose (B) Stevia (C) Ace-K, Aspartame (D) HFCS
④ (A) Sucralose (B) Stevia (C) HFCS (D) Ace-K, Aspartame

問3 According to the article you read, which of the following are true? (Choose two options. The order does not matter.) ( 45 )・( 46 )

①Alternative sweeteners have been proven to cause weight gain.
②Americans get 14.6% of their energy from alternative sweeteners.
③It is possible to get alternative sweeteners from plants.
④Most artificial sweeteners are easy to cook with.
⑤Sweeteners like xylitol and sorbitol are not digested quickly.

問4 To describe the author’s position, which of the following is most appropriate?
( 47 )

①The author argues against the use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and desserts.
②The author believes artificial sweeteners have successfully replaced traditional ones.
③The author states that it is important to invent much sweeter products for future use.
④The author suggests people focus on choosing sweeteners that make sense for them.

 

英語共テ2021(令和3) 第6問B 解答

第6問B 問1 解答

問1 You learn that modern science has changed the world of sweeteners by ( 43 ) . あなたは現代科学が( 43 )により甘味料の世界を変えてきたことを学ぶ。

①discovering new, sweeter white sugar types 新しくより甘い種類の白糖を発見すること
②measuring the energy intake of Americans アメリカ人のエネルギー摂取量を測定すること
③providing a variety of new options 様々な新しい選択肢を提供すること
④using many newly-developed plants from the environment 環境から新たに開発された多くの植物を利用すること

解答の根拠となるのは第一段落。

Scientific discoveries, however, have changed the world of sweeteners. We can now extract sugars from many other plants. The most obvious example is corn. Corn is abundant, inexpensive, and easy to process. High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is about 1.2 times sweeter than regular sugar, but quite high in calories. Taking science one step further, over the past 70 years scientists have developed a wide variety of artificial sweeteners.

3行目に「しかしながら、科学的な発見は甘味料の世界を変えてきた」とあり、その内容をより具体的に示したのが最終文「ここ70年の間、科学者たちは非常に様々な人工甘味料を開発してきた」とあるので③が正解。

第6問B 問2 解答

問2 You are summarizing the information you have just studied. How should the table be finished? ( 44 )

甘味料の甘さを甘い順に並べる問題。

① (A) Stevia (B) Sucralose (C) Ace-K, Aspartame (D) HFCS
② (A) Stevia (B) Sucralose (C) HFCS (D) Ace-K, Aspartame
③ (A) Sucralose (B) Stevia (C) Ace-K, Aspartame (D) HFCS
④ (A) Sucralose (B) Stevia (C) HFCS (D) Ace-K, Aspartame

大文字に着目。HFCSは第一段落。その他は第三段落に初登場し、第四段落で具体的に説明している。

HFCSは第一段落の以下の記述から普通の砂糖の1.2倍甘いことが分かる。

High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is about 1.2 times sweeter than regular sugar

その他については第四段落の第2文から甘さについての言及がある。

Aspartame and Ace-K are 200 times sweeter than sugar. Stevia is 300 times sweeter, and sucralose has twice the sweetness of stevia. Some new sweeteners are even more intense. A Japanese company recently developed “Advantame,” which is 20,000 times sweeter than sugar.

Aspartame と Ace-Kは砂糖の200倍、Steviaは300倍。sucralose は steviaの2倍甘いとあるので砂糖の600倍。

最後にAdvantameは砂糖の20,000倍甘いとあるとあるが、これはあらかじめ表に書かれている。

やって③の Sucralose (砂糖の600倍甘い)、Stevia (砂糖の300倍甘い) 、Ace-K, Aspartame (砂糖の200倍甘い) 、HFCS (砂糖の1.2倍甘い)の順番が正しい。

第6問B 問3 解答

問3 According to the article you read, which of the following are true? (Choose two options. The order does not matter.) ( 45 )・( 46 )

①Alternative sweeteners have been proven to cause weight gain. 代替甘味料は体重増加の原因になる事が証明されている。
②Americans get 14.6% of their energy from alternative sweeteners. アメリカ人はエネルギーの14.6%を代替甘味料から得ている。
③It is possible to get alternative sweeteners from plants. 植物から代替甘味料を手に入れることが可能である。
④Most artificial sweeteners are easy to cook with. ほとんどの人工甘味料は調理するのが簡単である。
⑤Sweeteners like xylitol and sorbitol are not digested quickly. キシリトールやソルビトールのような甘味料はすばやく消化されない。

複数の段落を幅広く見て答える必要のある設問。

①は注意が必要。第三段落の第1文と2文に注目。

Natural alternatives to white sugar include brown sugar, honey, and maple syrup, but they also tend to be high in calories. Consequently, alternative “low-calorie sweeteners” (LCSs), mostly artificial chemical combinations, have become popular.

天然の代替甘味料はどれもカロリーが高いので体重増加につながるであろうが、代替の低カロリー甘味料(LCS)は~とある。低カロリーなら体重増加につながらないはず。

よって①は不正解。

②の14.6という数字は第二段落の第1文に見える。

A recent US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey concluded that 14.6% of the average American’s energy intake is from “added sugar,”

平均的なアメリカ人のエネルギーの摂取の14.6%は「添加糖」からもたらされるとあるので不正解。

③の該当段落は第三段落。最終文に注目。

Not all LCSs are artificial ― stevia comes from plant leaves.

全てのLCSが人工という訳では無い。steviaは植物の葉から抽出される。

とあるので③は正解。

④は第四段落の冒頭に

 Alternative sweeteners can be hard to use in cooking because some cannot be heated and most are far sweeter than white sugar.

代替甘味料の中には熱することができないものがあり、白糖よりもはるかに甘いので調理に使うのは難しい。

とあるので不正解。

⑤については第五段落に後半に書かれています。

There are a few relatively natural alternative sweeteners, like xylitol and sorbitol, which are low in calories. Unfortunately, these move through the body extremely slowly, so consuming large amounts can cause stomach trouble.

キシリトールやソルビトールは体の中で極めてゆっくり動くので、大量のものを消費すると胃に問題を起こすかもしれない。

とあるので⑤は正解になる。

1つの設問でここまで複数の段落を読まないといけないのは大変ですね。

しげT

第6問B 問4 解答

問4 To describe the author’s position, which of the following is most appropriate?
( 47 )
①The author argues against the use of artificial sweeteners in drinks and desserts. 筆者は飲料やデザートに人工甘味料を使用することに反論している。
②The author believes artificial sweeteners have successfully replaced traditional ones. 筆者は人工甘味料が伝統的な甘味料に取って代わるのに成功したと考えている。
③The author states that it is important to invent much sweeter products for future use. 筆者は将来に使用するためにもっと甘い製品を発明することが重要であると述べています。
④The author suggests people focus on choosing sweeteners that make sense for them. 著者は人々が自分にとって筋が通っている甘味料を選ぶことに集中することを提案してる。

解答の根拠となるのは最終文。

Individuals need to weigh the options and then choose the sweeteners that best suit their needs and circumstances.

個人は選択肢を比較検討し、必要性と状況に最も合う甘味料を選ぶ必要がある。

とあるので④が正解。

この記事を書いている人 - WRITER -
予備校英語講師歴20年重田真人です。
現在は飯田塾講師。
大手予備校で中1から高3の基礎クラスから東大クラスまでほとんどのクラスを担当しました。映像授業にも多数出演経験あり。
元東海大非常勤講師。
「大学入試英語解く得!」は最高PV数 34,212 / 日まで成長。
質・量ともに日本一分かりやすい大学入試英語対策ページを目指します!
資格:英検一級、通訳案内士(英語)、TOEIC950点
趣味:海外旅行、食べ歩き
特技:将棋アマ六段 (全国レーティング選手権優勝 1998)
元技術翻訳者、元富士通
詳しいプロフィールはこちら







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