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【共通テスト 英語 試行テスト】H30年(2018年) 第5問 問題と詳しい解説

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1. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第5問 ー 問題

 Your group is preparing a poster presentation entitled “The Person Who Revolutionized American Journalism,” using information from the magazine article below.


 Benjamin Day, a printer from New England, changed American journalism forever when he started a New York City newspaper, The Sun. Benjamin Day was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, on April 10, 1810. He worked for a printer as a teenager, and at the age of 20 he began working in print shops and newspaper offices in New York. In 1831, when he had saved enough money, he started his own printing business, which began to struggle when the city was hit by a cholera epidemic the following year. In an attempt to prevent his business from going under, Day decided to start a newspaper.

 In 1833, there were 650 weekly and 65 daily American newspapers, with average sales of around 1,200. Although there were cheap newspapers in other parts of the country, in New York a newspaper usually cost as much as six cents. Day believed that many working-class people were able to read newspapers, but chose not to buy them because they did not address their interests and were too expensive. On September 3, 1833, Day launched The Sun with a copy costing just one cent. The introduction of the “penny press,” as cheap newspapers became known, was an important milestone in American journalism history.

 Day’s newspaper articles were different from those of other newspapers at the time. Instead of reporting on politics and reviews of books or the theater, The Sun focused on people’s everyday lives. It was the first newspaper to report personal events and crimes. It led to a paradigm shift in American journalism, with newspapers becoming an important part of the community and the lives of the readers. Day also came up with another novel idea: newsboys selling the newspaper on street corners. People wouldn‘t even have to step into a shop to buy a paper.

 The combination of a newspaper that was cheap as well as being easily available was successful, and soon Day was making a good living publishing The Sun. Within six months, The Sun’s circulation reached 5,000, and after a year, it had risen to 10,000. By 1835, sales of The Sun had reached 19,000, more than any of the other daily papers at that time. Over the next few years, about a dozen new penny papers were established, beginning a new era of newspaper competition. The success of The Sun encouraged other journalists to publish newspapers at a lower price. By the time of the Civil War, the standard price of a New York City newspaper had fallen to just two cents.

 Despite his success, after about five years of operating The Sun, Day lost interest in the daily work of publishing a newspaper. In 1838, he sold The Sun to his brother-in-law, Moses Yale Beach, for $40,000, and the newspaper continued to publish for many years. After selling the paper, Day moved into other business areas, including the publication of magazines, but by the 1860s he was basically retired. He lived quietly until his death on December 21, 1889. Although he had been involved in the American newspaper business for a relatively short time, Day is remembered as a revolutionary figure who showed that newspapers could appeal to a mass audience.


 

The Person Who Revolutionized American Journalism

■ The Life of Benjamin Day

Period Events
1810s Day spent his childhood in Springfield
1820s ( 27 )

1830s and beyond

 

( 28 )

( 29 )

( 30 )

( 31 )

■ About The Sun

▶ Day launched The Sun on September 3, 1833.
▶ This newspaper was highly successful for the following reasons: ( 32 )

■ A Shift in U.S. Journalism: A New Model

▶ The motto of The Sun was “( 33 ).”
▶The Sun changed American journalism and society in a number of ways: ( 34 )

 

問1 Members of your group listed important events in Day’s life. Put the events into the boxes ( 27 )〜( 31 ) in the order that they happened.

①Day created other publications

②Day established a printing company

③Day gained experience as a printer in his local area

④Day started a newspaper business

⑤Day’s business was threatened by a deadly disease

問2 Choose the best statement(s) to complete the poster. (You may choose more than one option.) ( 32 )

①Day focused on improving the literacy levels of the working class.

②Day introduced a new way of distributing newspapers.

③Day realized the potential demand for an affordable newspaper.

④Day reported political affairs in a way that was easy to understand.

⑤Day supplied a large number of newspapers to every household.

⑥Day understood what kind of articles would attract readers.

問3 Which of the following was most likely to have been The Sun’s motto? ( 33 )

①Nothing is more valuable than politics

②The daily diary of the American Dream

③The Sun: It shines for all

④Top people take The Sun

問4 Choose the best statement(s) to complete the poster. (You may choose more than one option.) ( 34 )

①Information became widely available to ordinary people.

②Journalists became more conscious of political concerns.

③Journalists started to write more on topics of interest to the community.

④Newspapers became less popular with middle-class readers.

⑤Newspapers replaced schools in providing literacy education.

⑥The role of newspapers became much more important than before.

 

2. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第5問解答・配点と正解率

問題番号 設問 解答番号 正解 配点 正答率
第5問 1 27 3 5 (*2) 21.7%
28 2
29 5
30 4
31 1
2 32 2,3,6 5 (*1) 8.7%
3 33 3 5 40.4%
4 34 1,3,6 5 (*1) 19.2%

*1は、過不足なく解答した場合のみ点を与える。

*2は、全部正解の場合のみ点を与える。

 

 

3. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第5問 ー 解答、解説

5 問1の解答、解説

問1 Members of your group listed important events in Day’s life. Put the events into the boxes ( 27 )〜( 31 ) in the order that they happened.

あなたのグループのメンバーは、デイの人生の重要な出来事をリストに挙げた。その出来事を起こった順番に( 27 )〜( 31 )の空欄に入れなさい。

①Day created other publications デイは他の出版物を作った

②Day established a printing company デイは印刷会社を設立した

③Day gained experience as a printer in his local area デイは地元で印刷工としての経験を積んだ

④Day started a newspaper business デイは新聞事業を開始した

⑤Day’s business was threatened by a deadly disease デイの事業は命にかかわる病気に脅かされた

 

■ The Life of Benjamin Day

Period Events
1810s Day spent his childhood in Springfield
1820s ( 27 )

1830s and beyond

 

( 28 )
↓ 
( 29 )
↓ 
( 30 )

( 31 )

主な出来事は第一段落と第二段落に集中しています。

 Benjamin Day, a printer from New England, changed American journalism forever when he started a New York City newspaper, The Sun. Benjamin Day was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, on April 10, 1810. He worked for a printer as a teenager, and at the age of 20 he began working in print shops and newspaper offices in New York. In 1831, when he had saved enough money, he started his own printing business, which began to struggle when the city was hit by a cholera epidemic the following year. In an attempt to prevent his business from going under, Day decided to start a newspaper.

 In 1833, there were 650 weekly and 65 daily American newspapers, with average sales of around 1,200. Although there were cheap newspapers in other parts of the country, in New York a newspaper usually cost as much as six cents. Day believed that many working-class people were able to read newspapers, but chose not to buy them because they did not address their interests and were too expensive. On September 3, 1833, Day launched The Sun with a copy costing just one cent. The introduction of the “penny press,” as cheap newspapers became known, was an important milestone in American journalism history.

まず、1810年にベンジャミン・デイが生まれたことを確認。

なので( 27 )の1820sとはデイが10歳から20歳の間。

He worked for a printer as a teenager 「彼は10代で印刷工として働いた」とあるので( 27 )は③が正解になります。

③Day gained experience as a printer in his local area デイは地元で印刷工としての経験を積んだ

地元でという記述は直接ありませんが、これ以降の文で場所が変わった時には記載があるので、印刷工として働いていたのは生まれたマサチューセッツ州スプリングフィールドと想定できます。

 

( 28 )以降は1930s and beyond「1930年代以降」とあるので、言い換えるとデイの20代以降です。

第4文に”In 1831, when he had saved enough money, he started his own printing business“,

「1831年、十分なお金が貯まった時に彼は自分の印刷事業を始めた」とあるので( 28 )は②が正解になります。

②Day established a printing company デイは印刷会社を設立した

 

( 29 )は28の解答の根拠になった文が “In 1831, when he had saved enough money, he started his own printing business, which began to struggle when the city was hit by a cholera epidemic the following year.

「それ(彼の事業は)、その都市(=ニューヨーク)が翌年コレラの流行にに直撃した時に悪戦苦闘し始めた」とあるので( 29 )は⑤が正解になります。

⑤Day’s business was threatened by a deadly disease デイの事業は命にかかわる病気に脅かされた

a deadly disease = cholera という事ですね。「コレラ」についての説明は特にありませんが、常識ということですかね。

 

( 30 )は第一段落の最後に In an attempt to prevent his business from going under, Day decided to start a newspaper.「事業が倒産するのを防ごうとしてデイは新聞を始めることに決めた」とあるので④が正解。

実際始めたのは第二段落の最後から2文にOn September 3, 1833, Day launched The Sun with a copy costing just one cent.「1833年9月3日に一部わずか1セントの「ザ・サン」を開始した」とあるので、実際に始めたのは2年後。

 

( 31 )はだいぶとんで最終段落。

After selling the paper, Day moved into other business areas, including the publication of magazines,

「デイは新聞社を売った後で、雑誌を含む他の事業分野に進出した」とあるので、①のDay created other publications 「デイは他の出版物を作った」が正解。

段落毎に1つの答えなどセンター試験の定形とは違い少しひねった設問ですね。1つ1つは決して難しくないのですが

しげT

 

 

5 問2の解答、解説

問2 Choose the best statement(s) to complete the poster. (You may choose more than one option.) ( 32 )

このポスターを完成させるための、最も適切な記述を選びなさい。(複数の選択肢を選んでよい)

①Day focused on improving the literacy levels of the working class.

デイは労働者階級の識字率の向上に焦点を合わせた。

②Day introduced a new way of distributing newspapers.

デイは新聞を配給する新しい方法を導入した。

③Day realized the potential demand for an affordable newspaper.

デイは手頃な価格の新聞に対する潜在的な需要に気づいた。

④Day reported political affairs in a way that was easy to understand.

デイは理解しやすいやり方で政治を報道した。

⑤Day supplied a large number of newspapers to every household.

デイはあらゆる世帯に多数の新聞を供給した。

⑥Day understood what kind of articles would attract readers.

デイはどのような種類の記事が読者を引き付けるのか理解していた。

■ About The Sun

▶ Day launched The Sun on September 3, 1833.
▶ This newspaper was highly successful for the following reasons: ( 32 )

「この新聞は以下の理由でとても成功した」とあるので「ザ・サン」が成功した理由を6つの選択肢から選ぶ。

①は「労働者階級の識字率の向上」というのが間違い。本文に記述がないし、そうした大義よりもむしろ大衆が読みやすい新聞を目指した。

②は第三段落に記述があるので正解。

Day also came up with another novel idea: newsboys selling the newspaper on street corners. People wouldn‘t even have to step into a shop to buy a paper.

「デイはまた別の斬新なアイデアを思い付いた。新聞少年が街角で新聞を売るのだ。人々は新聞を買うために店に入る必要すらなかった」

これが a new way of distributing newspapers 「新聞を配給する新しい方法」に相当する。

③は第二段落に記述があるので正解。

Although there were cheap newspapers in other parts of the country, in New York a newspaper usually cost as much as six cents. Day believed that many working-class people were able to read newspapers, but chose not to buy them because they did not address their interests and were too expensive. On September 3, 1833, Day launched The Sun with a copy costing just one cent.

ニューヨークでは新聞は6セントもした。労働者階級の人たちは新聞を読めたが、高すぎた。なので1セントで「ザ・サン」を始めたという流れ。

an affordable newspaper「手頃な新聞」が1セントの新聞を指すと感得られる。

affordable「手頃な」は少し意味が難しいですね。ただここでは意味を知っているかどうかが正解の分かれ目になっています。

しげT

④はpolitical affairs「政治」が間違い。第三段落の初めに

 Day’s newspaper articles were different from those of other newspapers at the time. Instead of reporting on politics and reviews of books or the theater, The Sun focused on people’s everyday lives. It was the first newspaper to report personal events and crimes. It led to a paradigm shift in American journalism, with newspapers becoming an important part of the community and the lives of the readers.

デイの新聞が当時の他の新聞と違っていたのは、(他の新聞のように)政治、本や劇のレビューを行うのではなく人々の日常生活に焦点をあてたこと。政治は重視しなかったのですね。

⑤はevery household「デイはあらゆる世帯」というのが間違い。

⑥は④の該当箇所と関連するして正解。

人々の日常生活=個人的な出来事や犯罪 を取り上げそれが、アメリカのジャーナリズムのパラダイムシフト(劇的な変化)になり、新聞が地域社会や読者の生活の重要な一部になったとあるので、「デイはどのような種類の記事が読者を引き付けるのか理解していた。」と考える事ができる。

 

 

5 問3の解答、解説

問3 Which of the following was most likely to have been The Sun’s motto? ( 33 )

「ザ・サン」の座右の銘として、以下のどれが最適が。

①Nothing is more valuable than politics

政治ほど価値のあるものはない

②The daily diary of the American Dream

アメリカンドリームの日記

③The Sun: It shines for all

ザ・サン : すべての人のために輝く

④Top people take The Sun

地位の高い人々が「ザ・サン」を手に取る

 

①、④は内容が逆。②は記述なし。

③は問2⑥とも関係。「ザ・サン」は大衆のための新聞を目指したのでこれが正解。

そのことはいくつか記述がありますが、最終文でも確認ができます。

Day is remembered as a revolutionary figure who showed that newspapers could appeal to a mass audience.

「デイは新聞が大衆にアピールしうることを示した革命的人物として記憶されている」

5 問4の解答、解説

問4 Choose the best statement(s) to complete the poster. (You may choose more than one option.) ( 34 )

このポスターを完成させるのに最も適した記述を選びなさい。(複数の選択肢を選んでよい) ( 34 )

①Information became widely available to ordinary people.

一般の人々が広く情報を利用できるようになった。

②Journalists became more conscious of political concerns.

ジャーナリストは政治的問題をより意識するようになった。

③Journalists started to write more on topics of interest to the community.

ジャーナリストは地域社会とって関心のある話題についてもっと書き始めた。

④Newspapers became less popular with middle-class readers.

新聞は中流階級の読者にあまり人気がなくなっていった。

⑤Newspapers replaced schools in providing literacy education.

新聞は識字教育を提供することにおいて学校に取って代わった。

⑥The role of newspapers became much more important than before.

新聞の役割は以前よりずっと重要になった。

 

▶ The motto of The Sun was “( 33 ).”
▶The Sun changed American journalism and society in a number of ways: ( 34 )

「ザ・サンはアメリカのジャーナリズムや社会をいくつかの点で変えた」これに該当する答えを選ぶ。

 

①は問2の④とも関連して正解。

デイの新聞が当時の他の新聞と違っていたのは、(他の新聞のように)政治、本や劇のレビューを行うのではなく人々の日常生活に焦点をあてたこと。

ここから以前は以前の新聞は政治、本や劇のレビューが中心でデイの「ザ・サン」が人々の日常正解に焦点をあてたことで人々が利用できる情報が広がったと考えられる。

②は政治的問題が間違い。

③は問2の⑥とも関連して正解。「ザ・サン」が扱うようになった地域社会の話題はアメリカのジャーナリズムに劇的な変化をもたらし、新聞が地域社会の重要な一部になったとある。

④は中流階級についての言及は本文になし。

⑤は新聞と識字教育の関わりに関する記述がないので不正解。

⑥は①や③と関連して正解。政治、本や劇のレビューだけなく、「ザ・サン」以降は人々の日常生活に焦点をあてるようになったので、「新聞の役割は以前よりずっと重要になった」と考えることができる。

 

 

 

この記事を書いている人 - WRITER -
アバター
Z会の教室で15年英語講師をしていた重田真人です。
中1から高3の基礎クラスから東大クラスまでほとんどのクラスを担当しました。映像授業にも多数出演しています。
元東海大非常勤講師。
「大学入試英語解く得!」は最高PV数 34,212 / 日まで成長。
質・量ともに日本一分かりやすい大学入試英語対策ページを目指します!
資格:英検一級、通訳案内士(英語)、TOEIC950点
趣味:海外旅行、食べ歩き
特技:将棋アマ六段 (全国レーティング選手権優勝 1998)
詳しいプロフィールはこちら







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