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【共通テスト 英語 試行テスト】H30年(2018年) 第6問 問題と詳しい解説

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1. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第6問 A ー 問題

A You are preparing for a group presentation on gender and career development for your class. You have found the article below.


 

Can Female Pilots Solve Asia’s Pilot Crisis?

[1]  With the rapid growth of airline travel in Asia, the shortage of airline pilots is becoming an issue of serious concern. Statistics show that the number of passengers flying in Asia is currently increasing by about 100,000,000 a year. If this trend continues, 226,000 new pilots will be required in this region over the next two decades. To fill all of these jobs, airlines will need to hire more women, who currently account for 3% of all pilots worldwide, and only 1% in Asian countries such as Japan and Singapore. To find so many new pilots, factors that explain such a low number of female pilots must be examined, and possible solutions have to be sought.
[2] One potential obstacle for women to become pilots might be the stereotype that has long existed in many societies: women are not well-suited for this job. This seems to arise partly from the view that boys tend to excel in mechanics and are stronger physically than girls. A recent study showed that young women have a tendency to avoid professions in which they have little prospect of succeeding. Therefore, this gender stereotype might discourage women from even trying. It may explain why at the Malaysia Flying Academy, for instance, women often account for no more than 10% of all trainees enrolled.
[3] Yet another issue involves safety. People may be concerned about the safety of aircraft flown by female pilots, but their concerns are not supported by data. For example, a previous analysis of large pilot databases conducted in the United States showed no meaningful difference in accident rates between male and female pilots. Instead, the study found that other factors such as a pilot’s age and flight experience better predicted whether that person is likely to be involved in an accident.
[4] Despite the expectation that male pilots have better flight skills, it may be that male and female pilots just have skills which give them different advantages in the job. On the one hand, male pilots often have an easier time learning how to fly than do female pilots. The controls in a cockpit are often easier to reach or use for a larger person. Men tend to be larger, on average, than women. In fact, females are less likely than men to meet the minimum height requirements that most countries have. On the other hand, as noted by a Japanese female airline captain, female pilots appear to be better at facilitating communication among crew members.
[5] When young passengers see a woman flying their plane, they come to accept female pilots as a natural phenomenon. Today’s female pilots are good role models for breaking down stereotypical views and traditional practices, such as the need to stay home with their families. Offering flexible work arrangements, as has already been done by Vietnam Airlines, may help increase the number of female pilots and encourage them to stay in the profession.
[6] It seems that men and women can work equally well as airline pilots. A strong message must be sent to younger generations about this point in order to eliminate the unfounded belief that airline pilots should be men.


 

問1 According to the article, the author calls the current situation in Asia a crisis because ( 35 ).

①many more male airline pilots are quitting their jobs than before
②the accident rates are increasing among both male and female pilots
③the number of female pilots has not changed much for the last few decades
④the number of future pilots needed will be much larger than at present

問2 According to the article, there is little difference between men and women in ( 36 ).

①how easily they learn to operate airplanes
②how likely they are to be involved in accidents
③how much time they can spend on work
④how people perceive their suitability for the job

問3 In Paragraph [4], the author most likely mentions a Japanese female airline captain in order to give an example of ( 37 ).

①a contribution female pilots could make to the workplace
②a female pilot who has excellent skills to fly a plane
③a problem in the current system for training airline pilots
④an airline employee who has made rare achievements

問4 Which of the following statements best summarizes the article? ( 38 )

①Despite negative views toward female pilots, they can be as successful as male pilots.
②Due to financial problems the percentage of female students in a pilot academy in Asia is too small.
③In the future many countries worldwide may have to start hiring more female pilots like Asian countries.
④There is little concern about increasing female pilots in the future because major obstacles for them have been removed.

 

 

2. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第6問 B ー 問題

B You are studying about world ecological problems. You are going to read the following article to understand what has happened in Yellowstone National Park.


 

 Yellowstone National Park, located in the northern United States, became the world’s first national park in 1872. One of the major attractions of this 2.2-millionacre park is the large variety of animals. Some people say that Yellowstone is the best place in the world to see wolves. As of December 2016, there were at least 108 wolves and 11 packs (social families) in the park. By the 1940s, however, wolves had almost disappeared from Yellowstone National Park. Today, these wolves are back and doing well. Why have they returned?

 The wolves’ numbers had declined by the 1920s through hunting, which was not regulated by the government. Ranchers on large farms raising cattle, horses, and sheep did not like wolves because they killed their animals. When the wolves were on the point of being wiped out by hunting, another problem arose— the elk herds increased in number. Elk, a large species of deer, are the wolves’ principal source of food in the winter. The elk populations grew so large that they upset the balance of the local ecosystem by eating many plants. People may like to see elk, but scientists were worried about the damage caused by the overly large population.

 To solve this problem, the U.S. government announced their intention to release young wolves brought from Canada. It was hoped that the wolves would hunt the elk and help bring down the population. However, because many ranchers were against bringing back wolves, it took about 20 years for the government and the ranchers to agree on a plan. In 1974, a team was appointed to oversee the reintroduction of wolves. The government published official recovery plans in 1982, 1985, and finally in 1987. After a long period of research, an official environmental impact statement was issued and 31 wolves were released into Yellowstone from 1995 to 1996.

 This project to reduce the number of elk was a great success. By 2006, the estimated wolf population in Yellowstone National Park was more than 100. Furthermore, observers believe that the wolves have been responsible for a decline in the elk population from nearly 20,000 to less than 10,000 during the first 10 years following their introduction. As a result, a lot of plants have started to grow back. The hunting of wolves is even allowed again because of the risk from wolves to ranchers’ animals. While hunting wolves because they are perceived as a threat may seem like an obvious solution, it may cause new problems. As a study published in 2014 suggested, hunting wolves might increase the frequency of wolves killing ranchers’ animals. If the leader of a wolf pack is killed, the pack may break up. Smaller packs or individual wolves may then attack ranchers’ animals. Therefore, there is now a restriction on how many wolves can be hunted. Such measures are important for long-term management of wolf populations.

 


 

問1 The decline of wolves in Yellowstone National Park in the early 1900s resulted in ( 39 ).

①a decrease in the number of hunters, which was good for the wolves
②a decrease in the number of ranchers, which reduced the human population
③an increase in the number of elk, which damaged the local ecosystem
④an increase in the number of trees and plants, which helped elk to hide

問2 Out of the following four graphs, which illustrates the situation the best? ( 40 )

問3 According to the article, which two of the following tell us about the current situation in the park? (Choose two options. The order does not matter.) ( 41 )・( 42 )

①More travelers are visiting the park than thirty years ago.
②One species was saved but another has become extinct instead.
③People have started hunting wolves around this area again.
④The park has both wolves and elk, as well as rich vegetation.
⑤There is a new rule to reduce the elk population in the park.

問4 The best title for this article is ( 43 ).

①A Decrease in the Number of Ranchers’ Animals
②Addressing Problems With Nature’s Balance
③Nature Conservation Around the World
④Releasing Elk in National Parks

 

 

3. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第6問解答・配点と正解率

問題番号 設問 解答番号 正解 配点 正答率
第6問 A 1 35 4 3 51.1%
A 2 36 2 3 28.6%
A 3 37 1 3 46.7%
A 4 38 1 3 39.9%
B 1 39 3 3 55.9%
B 2 40 2 3 36.9%
B 3 41-42 3-4 3 (*2) 17.5%
B 4 43 2 3 51.8%

*1は、過不足なく解答した場合のみ点を与える。

*2は、全部正解の場合のみ点を与える。

-(ハイフン)でつながれた正解は、順序を問わない。

4. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第6問 A ー 解答、解説

6A 問1 の解答、解説

問1 According to the article, the author calls the current situation in Asia a crisis because ( 35 ).

この記事によると、( 35 )という理由で、著者はアジアにおける現在の状況を危機と呼んでいる。

①many more male airline pilots are quitting their jobs than before

以前よりもずっと多くの男性パイロットが仕事を辞めている

②the accident rates are increasing among both male and female pilots

男性パイロットと女性のパイロットの両方で事故率が上昇している

③the number of female pilots has not changed much for the last few decades

女性パイロットの数はこの数十年の間あまり変わっていない

④the number of future pilots needed will be much larger than at present

必要とされる将来のパイロット数は現在よりもずっと多くなる

 

正答の根拠が書かれているのは第一段落。

 [1] With the rapid growth of airline travel in Asia, the shortage of airline pilots is becoming an issue of serious concern. Statistics show that the number of passengers flying in Asia is currently increasing by about 100,000,000 a year. If this trend continues, 226,000 new pilots will be required in this region over the next two decades.

「統計が示すところ、アジアを飛行機で移動する乗客の数は現在、年間約1億人増加している。この傾向が続くなら、今後20年間でこの地域で226,000人の新しいパイロットが必要になる。」

とあり。22万以上ものパイロットが必要になるのは危機と考える事ができるので④が正解。

①、②、③は記述がありません。

6A 問2 の解答、解説

問2 According to the article, there is little difference between men and women in ( 36 ).
この記事によると、( 36 )において男性と女性の間にほとんど違いがない。

①how easily they learn to operate airplanes
彼らがどの程度容易に飛行機の操縦を学ぶか
②how likely they are to be involved in accidents
彼らがどのくらいの可能性で事故に巻き込まれるか
③how much time they can spend on work
彼らが仕事にどのくらいの時間をかけられるか
④how people perceive their suitability for the job
人々がこの仕事への適性をどのように認識しているか

 

正答の根拠が書かれているのは第三段落。

  [3] Yet another issue involves safety. People may be concerned about the safety of aircraft flown by female pilots, but their concerns are not supported by data. For example, a previous analysis of large pilot databases conducted in the United States showed no meaningful difference in accident rates between male and female pilots.

「以前アメリカで行われた大規模なパイロットのデータベースの分析では、男性パイロットと女性のパイロットの間の事故率に有意義な違いは無かったことを示している。」

とあるのでこの部分を言い換えた②が正解。

①は第四段落に

On the one hand, male pilots often have an easier time learning how to fly than do female pilots. The controls in a cockpit are often easier to reach or use for a larger person. Men tend to be larger, on average, than women.

「どの程度容易に飛行機の操縦を学ぶかについては背の高い方がコックピットの制御がしやすい。その点で女性より背の高い男性の方が有利」といったことが書かれているので不正解。

③は記述なし。

④は第二段落冒頭に「多くの社会で女性はパイロットに適さないと考えられている」という内容の事が書かれているので不正解。

 [2] One potential obstacle for women to become pilots might be the stereotype that has long existed in many societies: women are not well-suited for this job.

 

 

6A 問3の解答、解説

問3 In Paragraph [4], the author most likely mentions a Japanese female airline captain in order to give an example of ( 37 ).

第四段落で、著者は( 37 )の例を示すために日本人の女性航空機長に言及している可能性が最も高い。

①a contribution female pilots could make to the workplace
女性パイロットが職場に対してできるであろう貢献
②a female pilot who has excellent skills to fly a plane
飛行機を操縦する優れたスキルを持つ女性パイロット
③a problem in the current system for training airline pilots
現在のパイロットを訓練するためのシステムにおける問題
④an airline employee who has made rare achievements
めったにない業績を挙げた航空会社の従業員

該当箇所は第四段落の最後の部分。

On the other hand, as noted by a Japanese female airline captain, female pilots appear to be better at facilitating communication among crew members.

「女性パイロットは乗組員間のコミュニケーションを円滑に進めることにおいて(男性より)優れているように思われる。」とあり、これを「職場に対してできるであろう貢献」と考えることができるので①が正解。

日本人の女性航空機長に関する記述はこれだけなので、②、③、④は該当しない。

6A 問4の解答、解説

問4 Which of the following statements best summarizes the article? ( 38 )

次のうちどの記述がこの記事を最もよく要約しているか。( 38 )

①Despite negative views toward female pilots, they can be as successful as male pilots.

女性パイロットに対する否定的な見方にもかかわらず、彼女たちは男性パイロットと同じくらい成功する可能性がある。

②Due to financial problems the percentage of female students in a pilot academy in Asia is too small.

経済的な問題により、アジアのパイロット養成学校の女子学生の割合が少なすぎる。

③In the future many countries worldwide may have to start hiring more female pilots like Asian countries.

将来、世界中の多くの国がアジアの国々のようにより多くの女性パイロットを雇い始めなければならないだろう。

④There is little concern about increasing female pilots in the future because major obstacles for them have been removed.

女性パイロットにとっての大きな障害は取り除かれてきたので、将来女性パイロットを増やすことについての懸念はほとんどない。

 

本文は一貫して男性パイロットと女性パイロットの能力には差がないことを繰り返し論じているので①が正解。

最終段落の第1文でも結論的に以下のように述べています。

[6] It seems that men and women can work equally well as airline pilots.

「男性と女性はパイロットとして同じように平等に働くことができるようだ。」

②、③は記述なし。

④も元々女性パイロットにとっての大きな障害があったという記述はないので不正解。

本文に関してはセンター試験に近い素直な問題形式でした。

しげT

 

 

5. 大学入試共通テスト 試行テスト H30年実施 第6問 B ー 解答、解説

6B 問1 の解答、解説

問1 The decline of wolves in Yellowstone National Park in the early 1900s resulted in ( 39 ).

1900年代初頭にイエローストーン国立公園で狼が減少したので( 39 )

①a decrease in the number of hunters, which was good for the wolves

狩猟者の数が減少し、それは狼にとって良いことであった。

②a decrease in the number of ranchers, which reduced the human population

牧場主の数が減少し、そのせいで人間の人口が減少した。

③an increase in the number of elk, which damaged the local ecosystem

ヘラジカの数が増加し、それが地元の生態系を破壊した。

④an increase in the number of trees and plants, which helped elk to hide

木や植物の数が増加し、それはヘラジカが隠れるのを助けた

 

正答の根拠が書かれているのは第二段落。最終文から2つの目の文に以下のように書かれている。

The elk populations grew so large that they upset the balance of the local ecosystem by eating many plants.

「ヘラジカの個体数が非常に多くなったので、彼らは多くの植物を食べることによってこの地域の生態系のバランスを壊した。」

とあるのでこの部分を言い換えた③が正解。

①、②、④は記述がありません。

余談ですが、Elk(へらじか)はかなり巨大。天敵の狼がいなってヘラジカが増殖した訳ですがこんなのが増えたら困る訳です

しげT

Elk (ヘラジカ)

Elk (ヘラジカ)

 

6B 問2 の解答、解説

問2 Out of the following four graphs, which illustrates the situation the best? ( 40 )

問2 40 正解 ②
次の4つのグラフのうち、どれが最も適当なものを示しているか。

狼の個体数についてはまず、第一段落の最終文から2つの目の文に以下のようにあります。

By the 1940s, however, wolves had almost disappeared from Yellowstone National Park.

「1940年代まで狼はほぼ絶滅していた。」

次に狼の個体数が分かるのが第三段落の最終文。

After a long period of research, an official environmental impact statement was issued and 31 wolves were released into Yellowstone from 1995 to 1996.

1995年から1996年にかけて31頭の狼が開放されたとあります。

よって表の1987年の狼の数はゼロ、1996年の狼の数は31頭であるはずです。それを正しく示している①か②に正答を絞れます。また①と②は狼の遷移が同じなので後はヘラジカだけに注意します。

ヘラジカの個体数については第四段落の第3文。

Furthermore, observers believe that the wolves have been responsible for a decline in the elk population from nearly 20,000 to less than 10,000 during the first 10 years following their introduction.

「狼は導入後の最初の10年間でヘラジカの個体数が2万頭近くから1万頭未満へ減少したこと関連がある」

狼を導入したのは1995年から1996年なので、1996年にはヘラジカの個体数は約2万、2006年には1万未満。それを示しているのは②の方がこれが正解になります。

ヘラジカが2万頭から1万頭になったとのは分かりやすいですが、during the first 10 years following their introduction.「それの(=狼の)導入後の最初の10年間」の部分を正確に読み取る必要があります。

しげT

 

 

6B 問3 の解答、解説

問3 According to the article, which two of the following tell us about the current situation in the park? (Choose two options. The order does not matter.) ( 41 )・( 42 )

この記事によると、以下の2つのうちどれが公園の現在の状況について伝えているか。(2つの選択肢を選びなさい。順番は問題ない) ( 41 )・( 42 )

①More travelers are visiting the park than thirty years ago.

30年前よりも多くの旅行者がこの公園を訪れている。

②One species was saved but another has become extinct instead.

1つの種は救われたが、代わりに別の種が絶滅した。

③People have started hunting wolves around this area again.

人々はこの地域で再び狼猟を始めた。

④The park has both wolves and elk, as well as rich vegetation.

この公園には豊かな植物があるだけでなく、狼とヘラジカもいる。

⑤There is a new rule to reduce the elk population in the park.

公園内のヘラジカの個体数を減らすための新しい規則がある。

 

最終段落の第4文と5文で2つの正答を選ぶことができます。

As a result, a lot of plants have started to grow back. The hunting of wolves is even allowed again because of the risk from wolves to ranchers’ animals.

まず、「たくさんの植物が再び成長し始めた。」とあるので④が正解。狼とヘラジカがいるのが表からも分かっています。

そして「牧場主の動物へ危険を与えるため、狼の狩猟は、再び許可さえされている。」とあるので③が正解。

①、②、⑤は記述がありません。

6B 問4 の解答、解説

問4 The best title for this article is ( 43 ).
この記事のもっとも適切な題名は (43 )である。

①A Decrease in the Number of Ranchers’ Animals
牧場主の家畜の数の減少
②Addressing Problems With Nature’s Balance
自然のバランスの問題に取り組む
③Nature Conservation Around the World
世界中の自然保護
④Releasing Elk in National Parks
国立公園でヘラジカを開放する

狼が牧場主の植物を食い荒らす→狼を狩猟で絶滅に追い込む→ヘラジカが増える→ヘラジカが牧場主の植物を食い荒らす→ヘラジカを減らすために狼を開放

という内容が「自然のバランスの問題」と言えるので②正解。

①は記述なし。③は世界中が間違い。④は開放したは狼なので間違い。

 

 

この記事を書いている人 - WRITER -
アバター
Z会の教室で15年英語講師をしていた重田真人です。
中1から高3の基礎クラスから東大クラスまでほとんどのクラスを担当しました。映像授業にも多数出演しています。
元東海大非常勤講師。
「大学入試英語解く得!」は最高PV数 34,212 / 日まで成長。
質・量ともに日本一分かりやすい大学入試英語対策ページを目指します!
資格:英検一級、通訳案内士(英語)、TOEIC950点
趣味:海外旅行、食べ歩き
特技:将棋アマ六段 (全国レーティング選手権優勝 1998)
詳しいプロフィールはこちら







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