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2020年度 センター英語 第6問 論説文 問題&解説

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1. 2020年度 センター英語 第6問 論説文 問題

次の文章を読み、下の問い(A・B)に答えよ。なお、文章の左にある(1)〜(6)はパラグラフ(段落)の番号を表している。

(1) Vending machines are so common in Japan that you can find one almost anywhere you go. Some of these machines sell train or meal tickets, and others sell snacks or drinks. They are especially useful for people who want to get something quickly and conveniently.

(2) While vending machines are found throughout the country today, they were not originally developed in Japan. It is generally believed that the first one was constructed by a Greek mathematics teacher about 2,200 years ago. This machine sold special water used in prayers at temples. People who wanted to purchase the water put in a coin, which hit a metal lever attached to a string. Then, the weight of the coin let a specific amount of water pour out until the coin fell off. This ensured that people received an equal portion of the special water.

(3) About 1,000 years ago, a vending machine that sold pencils was developed in China. Later, in the 1700s, coin-operated tobacco boxes appeared in English bars. When people wanted the product sold by one of these boxes, they inserted a coin and turned a lever. The product then dropped down for the customer to pick up. However, it was not until the 1880s that vending machines spread around the world. In 1883, an English inventor created one that sold postcards and paper. This became popular, and soon vending machines selling paper, stamps, and other goods appeared in many countries. In 1904, vending machines came into service in Japan. In 1926, technology had advanced and machines could be set to sell products with different prices. After that, a wider variety of products were sold. When this happened, the vending machine industry expanded rapidly.

(4) The greatest problem faced by the global vending machine industry in its expansion was not the use of coins; it was paper money. This was a challenge as it proved easy for dishonest individuals to make money that could fool machines. This forced the vending machine industry to establish better detection methods and was one reason countries took steps to develop money that was difficult to counterfeit. Now, vending machines have become technologically advanced, not only to prevent problems with cash but also to accept credit cards and more recent forms of electronic payment.

(5) It is in Japan that vending machines have become most popular. Currently, Japan has more than 4.2 million vending machines, with about 55% of them selling beverages such as tea, coffee, and juice. One of the main reasons Japan has become the vending machine capital of the world is its overall level of safety. Unlike many places, where vending machines must be monitored to prevent theft, they can be placed virtually anywhere in Japan. This extraordinary degree of public safety is considered amazing by visitors, as well as the range of products available. Tourists often take pictures of machines that sell unexpected products like bananas, fresh eggs, and bags of rice. It is understandable that visitors see them as one aspect particular to Japanese culture.

(6) Given the popularity and usefulness of vending machines, it is unlikely that they will disappear anytime in the near future. They provide a place where various goods can be sold without the need for a sales clerk. The next time you want to purchase a hot drink on a cold day, remember that, in Japan at least, there is probably a vending machine just around the next corner.

A 次の問い(問1~5)の46〜50に入れるのに最も適当なものを,それぞれ下の①〜④のうちから一つずつ選べ。

問1 According to paragraph (2), what was the first vending machine capable of doing? ( 46 )

①Allowing people to acquire a fixed amount of liquid from it

②Offering books of ancient Greek mathematical principles

③Permitting visitors to enter temples when they wanted to pray

④Providing a regular income to the person who created it

問2 According to paragraph (3), which of the following statements about vending machines is true? ( 47 )

①An English inventor’s vending machine sold goods at various prices.

②Sales by vending machines increased when high value coins appeared.

③Vending machine technology was found in Asia many centuries ago.

④Vending machines were common in the world by the 18th century.

問3 Which of the following is closest to the meaning of the underlined word counterfeit in paragraph (4)? ( 48 )

①accept illegal exchanges

②create unauthorized imitations

③restrict unapproved technology

④withdraw unnecessary support

問4 According to paragraph (5), what is true about vending machines in Japan? ( 49 )

①Foreign tourists hesitate to make purchases from them.

②Over three quarters of them sell a variety of drinks.

③The highly safe products sold in them attract customers.

④The variety of items makes them unique in the world.

問5 What would be the best title for this passage? ( 50 )

①The Cultural Benefits of Vending Machines in Japanese Society

②The Development of Vending Machines From Historical Perspectives

③The Economic Impact of Vending Machines by International Comparison

④The Globalization of Vending Machines Through Modern Technology

B 次の表は,本文のパラグラフ(段落)の構成と内容をまとめたものである。 ( 51 )〜( 54 )に入れるのに最も適当なものを、下の①~④のうちから一つずつ選び、表を完成させよ。ただし、同じものを繰り返し選んではいけない。

Paragraph  Content
(1) Introduction
(2) ( 51 )
(3) ( 52 )
(4) ( 53 )
(5) ( 54 )
(6) Conclusion

①A certain factor that has allowed vending machines to exist widely in one country

②Creation of one vending machine and a description of how the device was used

③Difficulties in building vending machines after introducing a different form of money

④Types of vending machine goods sold at different locations in the past

 

 

2. 2020年度 センター英語 第6問 論説文 解説

第6問の傾向と対策はこちらへどうぞ!

2-1 第6問A 問1 (46) の解説

問1 According to paragraph (2), what was the first vending machine capable of doing? ( 46 )

パラグラフ(2)によると、最初の自動販売機は何をすることが可能だったか?

①Allowing people to acquire a fixed amount of liquid from it  人がそこから一定量の液体を手に入れること

②Offering books of ancient Greek mathematical principles  古代ギリシャの数学の原理の本を提供すること

③Permitting visitors to enter temples when they wanted to pray 訪問者が祈りたい時に寺院に入ることを許可すること

④Providing a regular income to the person who created it それを作った人物に定期的な収入を与えること

第二段落には2,200年前!に最初に作られたと思われている自動販売機についての話。最後の部分に解答の分かりやすい根拠が書かれている。

(2) While vending machines are found throughout the country today, they were not originally developed in Japan. It is generally believed that the first one was constructed by a Greek mathematics teacher about 2,200 years ago. This machine sold special water used in prayers at temples. People who wanted to purchase the water put in a coin, which hit a metal lever attached to a string. Then, the weight of the coin let a specific amount of water pour out until the coin fell off. This ensured that people received an equal portion of the special water.

「そしてコインの重さによってコインが落ちるまで一定量の水が流れ出す。これにより、人々が同じ量の特別な水を受け取ることが保証された。」

とあるので正解は①

liquid は water の言い換えですね

しげT

 

 

2-2 第6問A 問2 (47) の解説

問2 According to paragraph (3), which of the following statements about vending machines is true? ( 47 )

パラグラフ(3)によると、自動販売機に関する以下の記述で正しいものはどれか?

①An English inventor’s vending machine sold goods at various prices. あるイギリスの発明家の(発明した)自動販売機がさまざまな価格で商品を販売した。

②Sales by vending machines increased when high value coins appeared.  価値の高いコインが登場すると、自動販売機の売上が増加した。

③Vending machine technology was found in Asia many centuries ago. 自動販売機の技術は何世紀も前にアジアで見られた。

④Vending machines were common in the world by the 18th century 自動販売機は18世紀までに世界で一般的になった。

落とし穴にハマると結構解きづらい問題かもしれない。

(3) About 1,000 years ago, a vending machine that sold pencils was developed in China. Later, in the 1700s, coin-operated tobacco boxes appeared in English bars. When people wanted the product sold by one of these boxes, they inserted a coin and turned a lever. The product then dropped down for the customer to pick up. However, it was not until the 1880s that vending machines spread around the world. In 1883, an English inventor created one that sold postcards and paper. This became popular, and soon vending machines selling paper, stamps, and other goods appeared in many countries. In 1904, vending machines came into service in Japan. In 1926, technology had advanced and machines could be set to sell products with different prices. After that, a wider variety of products were sold. When this happened, the vending machine industry expanded rapidly.

①のイギリスの発明家が登場するのは1883年。しかし様々な価格で商品が売られるようになったのは1926年なので不正解。

②は記述なし。

③は第1文に「約1,000年前に中国で鉛筆を売る自動販売機が開発された」とあるのでこれが正解。

④自動販売機が世界的に広まったのは1880年代から。よって19世紀なので不正解。

 

 

2-3 第6問A 問3 (48) の解説

単語の意味類推問題。

意味類推問題の解き方のコツはその単語だけ見るのではなく、カタマリ(その文が含まれる一文)をまとめて見ること でしたね。

問3 Which of the following is closest to the meaning of the underlined word counterfeit in paragraph (4)? ( 48 )

問3 次のうち、パラグラフ(4)の下線部の単語couterfeitの意味に最も近いものはどれか。

①accept illegal exchanges 違法な交換を受け入れる

②create unauthorized imitations 不正な模造品を作成する

③restrict unapproved technology 承認されていない技術を制限する

④withdraw unnecessary support 不要な支援を撤回する

(4) The greatest problem faced by the global vending machine industry in its expansion was not the use of coins; it was paper money. This was a challenge as it proved easy for dishonest individuals to make money that could fool machines. This forced the vending machine industry to establish better detection methods and was one reason countries took steps to develop money that was difficult to counterfeit.

第四段落は紙幣の登場により生じた問題の話。

問題の内容が1番分かりやすいのがitで始まる赤線部分「不誠実な人が機械を騙せるお金を作るのが容易になった」。ここで偽札の話だと分かれば解きやすい。

自分は「このことにより自動販売機の業界はもっと優れた検知機能を確立しなくてはならなくなり、これが国がcounterfeitするのが難しいお金を開発する手段を取った1つの理由だ」

「counterfeitするのが難しいお金」の部分だけでも正答は①と②に絞れるが、もちろん前文の流れから正解は②。

counterfeit の訳は知っていたという受験生も少数ながらいたと思います。

しげT

 

 

2-4 第6問A 問4 (49) の解説

問4 According to paragraph (5), what is true about vending machines in Japan? ( 49 )

問4 パラグラフ(5)によると、日本の自動販売機については正しいものはどれか。

①Foreign tourists hesitate to make purchases from them. 外国人観光客は自動販売機からの購入をためらう。

②Over three quarters of them sell a variety of drinks. 4分の3以上の自動販売機が様々な飲み物を販売している。

③The highly safe products sold in them attract customers. 自動販売機で販売されている安全性の高い製品が客を引き付けている。

④The variety of items makes them unique in the world. 商品が多様なので世界で独特なものになっている。

(5) It is in Japan that vending machines have become most popular. Currently, Japan has more than 4.2 million vending machines, with about 55% of them selling beverages such as tea, coffee, and juice. One of the main reasons Japan has become the vending machine capital of the world is its overall level of safety. Unlike many places, where vending machines must be monitored to prevent theft, they can be placed virtually anywhere in Japan. This extraordinary degree of public safety is considered amazing by visitors, as well as the range of products available. Tourists often take pictures of machines that sell unexpected products like bananas, fresh eggs, and bags of rice. It is understandable that visitors see them as one aspect particular to Japanese culture.

最後の部分で「日本では自動販売機で珍しいものが売られていて、(外国人)訪問客がそれを日本文化の特有な側面とみなしているのは理解できる」とあるので正解は④

①、③は記述なし。

②は飲み物を販売している自動販売機は55%なので4分の3に達しない。

 

 

2-5 第6問A 問5 (50) の解説

全体の大意を問う問題。

第一段落を見て解くのが王道ですがあえて外してきましたね

しげT

問5 What would be the best title for this passage? ( 50 )

問5 この一節に最適なタイトルは何であろうか?

①The Cultural Benefits of Vending Machines in Japanese Society 日本社会における自動販売機の文化的利益

②The Development of Vending Machines From Historical Perspectives 歴史的視点から見た自動販売機の発展

③The Economic Impact of Vending Machines by International Comparison 国際比較による自動販売機の経済的影響

④The Globalization of Vending Machines Through Modern Technology 現代技術を通じた自動販売機のグローバル化

①はそれらしき事も言っているが、文化的には特有なものであるが文化的な利益とは言っていない。自動販売機が便利なものとは言っているが。やや根拠が弱い。

②は第二段落と第三段落は年号などから分かりやすく歴史のことを述べているのがわかる。第四段落も紙幣の登場により自動販売機も変わったという話なので歴史の一部と見る事ができる。

という事で②が正解。

③と④は記述なし。

 

 

2-6 第6問 B (51~54) の解説

B  次の表は、本文のパラグラフ(段落)の構成と内容をまとめたものである。51~54に入れるのに最も適当なものを、下の①~④のうちから一つずつ選び、表を完成させよ。ただし、同じものを繰り返し選んではいけない。

Paragraph  Content
(1) Introduction
(2) ( 51 )
(3) ( 52 )
(4) ( 53 )
(5) ( 54 )
(6) Conclusion

①A certain factor that has allowed vending machines to exist widely in one country

1つの国に自動販売機が広く存在することを可能にしたある要因

 ( 54 )

②Creation of one vending machine and a description of how the device was used

ある自動販売機の作成と、その装置の使用方法の説明

( 51 )

③Difficulties in building vending machines after introducing a different form of money

異なる形態のお金を導入した後の自動販売機の製造の難しさ

( 53 )

④Types of vending machine goods sold at different locations in the past

過去にさまざまな場所で販売された自動販売機の商品の種類

( 52 )

①「1つの国に自動販売機が広く存在することを可能にしたある要因」は日本の事を述べたものだから第五段落で( 54 )が正解。

なお、第三文にその理由は「日本の安全性」と書かれている。

②は「2,200年前にギリシャで作られた最初の自動販売機のこと」なので 第二段落で( 51 )が正解。

③は「異なる形態のお金」が紙幣の事なので第四段落で ( 53 )が正解。

④は「過去に売られていた商品の話なので」第三段落で( 52 )が正解。

問題形式が変わることの多かったセンター英語ですが、第6問は10年以上変わらずでした

しげT

 

 

この記事を書いている人 - WRITER -
アバター
Z会の教室で15年英語講師をしていた重田真人です。
中1から高3の基礎クラスから東大クラスまでほとんどのクラスを担当しました。映像授業にも多数出演しています。
元東海大非常勤講師。
「センター英語解く得!」は最高PV数 34,212 / 日まで成長。
質・量ともに日本一分かりやすいセンター英語対策ページを目指します!
資格:英検一級、通訳案内士(英語)、TOEIC950点
趣味:海外旅行、食べ歩き
特技:将棋アマ六段 (全国レーティング選手権優勝 1998)
詳しいプロフィールはこちら







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